Home > Article > Types of Covid-19 Vaccines: What Are The Differences?
26 March 2021
The Jakarta Vaccination Program for the elderly and public service workers is still ongoing. For those of you who haven't got a vaccination schedule, no need to worry. You will get the Covid-19 vaccine according to the vaccination stages in our country. For your insight, you may want to know the types of Covid-19 vaccines currently available, including those used for vaccination in Jakarta.
Pfizer-BioNTech is the first vaccine in the world that can be used for the general public. This vaccine is the result of collaboration between a German biotechnology company, BioNTech, and an American pharmaceutical company, Pfizer. Pfizer-BioNTech is a messenger RNA (mRNA) type vaccine or nucleic acid vaccine. This vaccine uses genetic material (in the case of Covid-19 is the spike protein from Covid-19), which is used to give instructions to our body cells to form antibodies.
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has an efficacy of around 95% and has received an Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from the World Health Organization (WHO). The distribution and use of this vaccine was first carried out the United Kingdom, then followed by other countries such as Australia, United States, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and several countries in Asia such as South Korea, Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia.
The next vaccine found to fight Covid-19 is the Moderna vaccine. This vaccine is produced by a biotechnology company from the United States, Moderna. Similar to the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, this vaccine is a type of messenger RNA (mRNA) that uses genetic material to stimulate our cells to form antibodies.
The efficacy of the Moderna vaccine is around 95% and has received an Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The distribution and use of this vaccine is mostly carried out in their origin country, the United States. Other countries that use this vaccine are the United Kingdom, Israel and Singapore.
The AstraZeneca or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is a vaccine produced by a British biopharmaceutical company and the University of Oxford. This vaccine is a type of viral vector vaccine that utilizes the chimpanzee Adenovirus (which is weakened until it’s harmless), to deliver the spike protein from Covid-19 into our cells and trigger it to build antibodies.
The efficacy of the AstraZeneca vaccine is around 70% overall. After receiving Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from the World Health Organization (WHO), this vaccine began to be distributed and used in various countries around the world. Most of them are in Europe and Africa. The vaccine is also used in Asia such as Vietnam, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan and South Korea.
Type: Viral vector
The well-known pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson from the United States, took part in the making of Covid-19 vaccine. Through Janssen Vaccines, which is headquartered in the Netherlands, the Janssen vaccine was made to help fight Covid-19. The striking difference from this vaccine is the dosage of its use, which only requires one dosage. It’s different from the three vaccines we explained before, which require two doses with a span of about 28 days.
Similar to the AstraZeneca vaccine, the Janssen vaccine is a type of viral vector vaccine that uses inactive Adenovirus to deliver the spike protein from Covid-19 into our body cells, so it can trigger the formation of antibodies. In a clinical trial conducted by J&J, the Janssen vaccine had an efficacy of 66%. Whereas for trials conducted in the United States, the efficacy was higher, reaching 77%up to 100% to avoid the symptoms of Covid-19 which caused hospitalization and death. After receiving Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Janssen vaccine began to be distributed and used in the United States.
Efficacy: 66% - 100%
Sputnik V is a Russian vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. The vaccine, which has another name Gam-COVID-Vac, is a type of viral vector vaccine that uses inactive Adenovirus to deliver the spike protein from Covid-19 into our body cells, so it can trigger the formation of antibodies.
The efficacy of the Sputnik V vaccine is reported to be around 96.1%. That way, the Sputnik V vaccine got permission from the Russian government to be distributed and used in Russia and several other countries such as Belarus, Serbia, Argentina, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Tunisia, and Armenia. In mid-March, this vaccine also received approval from the Philippines Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to target Asian countries such as the Philippines and Vietnam.
Sinovac is a vaccine produced by a Chinese biopharmaceutical company, Sinovac BioTech. This vaccine, which has another name, CoronaVac, is a type of whole virus vaccine that uses the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. The inactivated virus is no longer able to infect the body, but it can trigger the formation of immunity in our body.
The Sinovac vaccine has various efficacy rates from several countries that have conducted its trials. Iin Brazil, the Sinovac vaccine has an efficacy of around 50,65%. In Turkey, the efficacy of the Sinovac vaccine is around 91,25%. Meanwhile in Indonesia , the efficacy of the Sinovac vaccine is around 65,3%.
After receiving Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from the Indonesia Food and Drug Administration (BPOM), the Sinovac vaccine began to be used for the vaccination program in Indonesia. Apart from Indonesia, other countries that have ordered the Sinovac vaccine are Brazil, Chile, Turkey, Singapore, Philippines and Malaysia.
Type: Whole virus (Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus)
Efficacy: 50,65% - 91,25%
Novavax is a vaccine developed by a biopharmaceutical company, called Novavax. This vaccine is a type of protein-based vaccine, containing a special Covid-19 spike protein made using the company's own technology, so it can stimulate the formation of antibodies in our body. The efficacy of the Novavax vaccine reached 89,3% in the third trial in England. Currently, Novavax is still waiting for an Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from the United State Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while preparing the production for distribution to various countries including Indonesia.
CanSino is a vaccine produced by collaboration between Chinese vaccine company, CanSino Biologics, and Chinese military scientists. The CanSino vaccine, or which has the trade-name of Convidecia, is a vaccine that only requires one dose of use with the viral vector type vaccine. This vaccine uses inactivated Adenovirus to deliver the spike protein from Covid-19 to our cells, which then triggers the formation of antibodies.
The efficacy of the CanSino vaccine is 65.7% for preventing Covid-19 symptoms, and 90.98% in preventing serious illnesses due to Covid-19. Although it was recently created, the CanSino vaccine has received Emergency Use Authorized (EUA) from Hungary and Mexico. Currently, the CanSino vaccine is planning its distribution to Mexico, Malaysia and Pakistan.
Efficacy: 65,7% - 90,98%
All types of vaccines used in the current vaccination program have passed a lot of clinical trials to prove its effectiveness in fighting Covid-19. If one type of vaccine can’t prove it effectiveness, of course the vaccine will not pass the test and will not be used. Various studies have been conducted by experts to prove the efficacy of vaccines. According to the CDC, based on known clinical trial data, vaccines can prevent serious illnesses because of Covid-19. That way, it can really help reduce the number of Covid-19 hospitalized patients and reduce the death rate due to Covid-19.
Are you or your parents one of the recipients of the stage 2 vaccination? Check the vaccination schedule through the JAKI application. Download JAKI via Play Store and App Store to make your activities easier during the pandemic.
Menulis segala hal yang berkaitan dengan hiruk pikuk Ibu Kota. Pegiat dan penikmat karya sastra lulusan Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Saat ini menjadi bagian dari Jakarta Smart City sebagai tim Content Writer.
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